- Katyń massacre
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The Katyn massacre was a series of secret mass executions of the Polish officers taken prisoner during the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland and arrested intelligentsia: teachers, lawyers, doctors, officials or priests. The massacre was prompted by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria's proposal to execute all captive members of the Polish Officer Corps, dated 5 March 1940, approved by the Soviet Politburo and its leader, Joseph Stalin. The shootings were carried out from 3 April to 16 May 1940. The victims were murdered in the Katyn Forest, Mednoye, Kharkiv, and other, unknown places. The number of victims is estimated at about 22,000. The Day of Remembrance for the Victims of Katyn Murder is celebrated on 13 April, marking the anniversary of the discovery of mass graves in Katyn.
- Signing of the Round Table Agreement
On this day in 1989 the final document, counting 271 pages, is signed, ending the Round Table negotiations. The key decisions included early, partially free elections to the Sejm (parliament – no more than 35% seats for the opposition) and free elections to the Senate, the authorisation of an independent daily newspaper, air time for the opposition on radio and television, the announcement of free elections no later than in 4 years' time, permission to restore the organisations and creative associations banned after 13 December 1981 (including “Solidarność”) and the promise of returning assets and jobs to people made redundant after the period of martial law.