- Jan Palach Memorial Day
type: anniversary location: Czech Republic
- Independent Association for the Defense of Human Rights founded in Bulgaria
On this day in 1988, the Independent Association for the Defense of Human Rights was founded in Bulgaria, advocating the introduction of political pluralism, independence of Bulgaria from the USSR and discontinuation of the policy of forced assimilation of ethnic minorities.
- Auschwitz Death March
On this day in 1945 the Death March out of Auschwitz began. When the Soviet Red Army advanced on occupied Poland in January 1945, the Germans started to withdrew their soldiers from forced-labour camps, destroying much of the evidence of their crimes and the majority of camp buildings. The prisoners – already starving and dying – were forced to march hundreds of miles further west, while those who stayed behind or fell were shot. 60,000 prisoners were marched of the camp and approximately 15,000 died on the way.
- First all-German Bundestag
The first all-German Bundestag elected Helmut Kohl as federal chancellor on this day in 1991.
- Falsification of parliamentary elections of '47 in Poland
Falsification of parliamentary elections of 1947 in Poland - the communist took full control. A legal opposition no longer existed, and its leader, Stanisław Mikołajczyk, had to flee the country.
- Conference in Wannsee
On 20 January 1942, 15 senior officials of Nazi Germany met in Berlin. The leader of the meeting was Reinhard Heydrich who was one of the most influential SS officers. The purpose of this conference was to ensure all administrative leaders about implementing of the “Final Solution (die Endlösung) to the Jewish Question”. As a result of the conference in 1942 a network of extermination camps was built in which millions of Jews were murdered.
- The end of the Paris Peace Conference
On 21 January 1920 the Peace Conference in Paris came to an end. The meeting opened on 18 January 1919. Its aim was to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. Major achievements of the conference included, among others, the creation of the League of Nations, signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany and drawing up four others peace settlements, including the Treaties of Trianon and Sèvres.